The Institute of Physical and Technical Problems of the North of the SB RAS was organized by the Decree of the USSR Academy of Sciences on 05/14/1970. No. 450 as part of the Yakut branch of the Siberian branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences in accordance with the decision of the State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on science and technology.

The initiator of the establishment of the Institute and the organizing director was the Chairman of the Presidium of the Yakut branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences, member of the USSR Academy of Sciences N.V. Chersky. The directors of the Institute at different times were: Academician N.V. Chersky - director-organizer (1970), director (1973-1979), Doctor of Technical Sciences N.S. Ivanov (1970-1973), Corresponding Member of the RAS Yu.S. Urzhumtsev (1979-1986), Academician of the RAS V.P. Larionov (1986-2004), Doctor of Technical Sciences, prof. O.I. Sleptsov (2004-2010), member RAS M.P. Lebedev (2010-2015), Doctor of Engineering E.G. Starostin (2015-2018), acting Director Doctor of Technical Sciences, member RAS A.M. Bolshakov (2018-2019). Since July 2019, the Institute is headed by the acting Director of Doctor of Technical Sciences V.V. Lepov.

The institute was created on the basis of the cold resistance department of machines and metal structures, the energy department, and the heat and mass transfer laboratory. The creation of the Institute was due to the need to expand basic research in the field of creating cold-resistant materials and structures to ensure the reliability and durability of equipment in the northern version, the development of energy and mining systems under the influence of cold climate factors.

The subjects and directions of scientific research of the Institute were formed and transformed taking into account the economic needs of the country and the republic, as well as in accordance with the Program of fundamental scientific research of state academies of sciences.

The main goal of the Institute is to carry out fundamental scientific research and applied research in the field of physical chemistry, technology and mechanics of materials, physical and technical problems of materials science at low temperatures; safety of functioning of energy and technical systems and systems complexes, hydrometeorology.

In order to achieve effective development of the natural resources of the North for the development of the economy of the Russian Federation, which mainly develops through the development of mineral resources, it is necessary to create new equipment and technologies involving the achievements of mechanics and energy.

To achieve significant results, a new scientific direction was developed at the Institute - the physical foundations of materials science and the strength of materials, taking into account the thermokinetic and thermo-deformational processes of strength formation and the viscous-brittle transition of structural materials of a wide class with fluctuations in the temperature of the medium. The fundamental results obtained in the field of physical materials science, metallurgy and kinetics of welding processes served as the basis for a wide class of technological solutions aimed at ensuring the safety and resource of machines and structures intended for operation in extreme climatic conditions.